History & Evolution The roots of this dance form trace back to Sanskrit Hindu text on performing arts called ‘Natya Shastra’ written by ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist Bharata Muni. [60], Kathakalī is still practiced in its Traditional ways and there are experimental plays based on European classics and Shakespeare's plays. [28][30] These plays are written in a particular format that helps identify the "action" and the "dialogue" parts of the performance. History of Kathakali: of art, agency, and aesthetics 16 Safwan Amir moves through a linear history of Kathakali, dealing with its in- ception, influences, patronage and participation. They typically deal with the Mahabarat, the Ramayana and the ancient scriptures known as the Puranas. [33] Traditionally, before the advent of electricity, this special large lamp provided light during the night. [2][3][note 1] Kathakali is a Hindu performance art in the Malayalam-speaking southwestern region of Kerala. Kathakali originated from a precursor dance-drama form called Ramanattam and owes it share of techniques also to Krishnanattam.The word "attam" means enactment. [14], The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. Jones and Ryan state it is more than 500 years old. [42] Face masks and headgear is added to accentuate the inner nature of the characters. Vallathol (in recorded history) and Kathakali’s autonomy are, then, obtained through this connection with art, art as being susceptible to aesthetics alone. Kathakali dance form is one of the oldest theater forms in the world. [41] Kari (black) is the code for forest dwellers, hunters, and middle ground character. History of Kathakali Dance. [69] In modern times, professional schools train students of Kathakali, with some such as those in Trivandrum Margi school emphasizing a single teacher for various courses, while others such as the Kerala Kalamandalam school wherein students learn subjects from different teachers. Kathakali is a form of Indian dance-drama. Kathak is characterized by intricate footwork and precise rhythmic patterns that the dancer articulates by controlling about 100 ankle bells. Karma dance of Madhya Pradesh is a traditional folk dance. [12][15] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathakali. If such were the conditions in which Kathakali emerged as an art form, it is more than obvious to ask whether such oppositions still exist. [57] The late 17th century Unnayi Variyar, in his short life, produced four plays which are traditionally considered the most expressive of the Kathakali playwrights. Several factors have contributed to its popularity. Modern performances are shorter. The history of Kathakali’s evolution shows how the vocal element has shifted from the actors to individual singers to make the acting and physical movements effortless. [2][3][5])India, Kathakalī's roots are unclear. [65], The Kalluvazhi style is second of the two, which developed in Palakkad (Olappamanna Mana) in central Kerala,[66] and it is a synthesis of the older Kaplingadan and Kalladikkotan performance arts. Kathakali is one of the oldest theatre forms in the world. Brief History of Kathakali Brief History of Kathakali is that it is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance, and It is another “story play” genre of art. Kathakali has a unique combination of literature, music, painting, acting and dance. Essentially it originated in South India, in the region which today forms the state of Kerela. [63][64], The Kidangoor style is one of the two, that developed in Travancore, and it is strongly influenced by Kutiyattam, while also drawing elements of Ramanattam and Kalladikkotan. [33], The stage is mostly bare, or with a few drama-related items. History of Kathakali Kathakali o… Kathakali follows the Hastha Lakshanadeepika most closely, unlike other classical dances of India. As the play progressed, the actor-dancers would gather around this lamp so that the audience could see what they are expressing. [28][33][note 2] Typically, all roles are played by male actor-dancers, though in modern performances, women have been welcomed into the Kathakali tradition. [44] There are three Guṇas, according to this philosophy, that have always been and continue to be present in all things and beings in the world. 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